Saturday, 28 June 2014

"The Best CPD I've Ever Had."

Thursday of last week saw the culmination of months of planning and preparation: our CPD day, delivered exclusively by our own teachers delivering the things we know they are good at.


As a big fan of Pedagoo, having been to #PedagooLondon for two years running now and #TLTSouthampton last year, I have long been waxing lyrical about the messages of bottom-up CPD and @kevbartle’s Trojan Mice effect.

My esteemed colleague @Flickas4Eva, Tess, and I had a ball at this year’s PedagooLondon and it wasn’t long before we suggested to our Lead Practitioner team that we should follow suit and set up a Pedagoo-style CPD for our own staff, and – most importantly - delivered by our own staff too.

Our Line Manager Alan, who is also our DHT, soon secured us one of the designated CPD days and then it was up to us to get it sorted. The four of us (DHT, 3 Lead Pracs: Paul, Tess and me, and our amazing admin support Therese) met officially once every two weeks, with lots of little unofficial meetings and grabbed conversations in corridors.

What follows is a step-by-step of how we made it happen, in the hope that other schools will be able to see that this kind of day, although no small undertaking, is perfectly achievable using a set of excellent resources that you already have in your own school: the staff.

(You’ll notice each step is categorized by an Abba hit. The reason for this will become apparent.)

Step 1 – I Have a Dream

We firstly decided on a model based on 4 workshop slots, department time to reflect and ending in a Teachmeet. We ran 5 workshops at a time and planned to run a few of them twice if there was enough demand.

We then pooled ideas about what kind of workshops we might offer, based on our own areas of strength as Lead Pracs who do a fair bit of outreach work between us, but also from staff we know to be very strong practitioners in their own fields, not in subjects taught but in areas we had seen them succeeding in observations and through word-of-mouth reputation.

We came up with a list of around 20 possible workshop sessions under particular headings and then created a Survey Monkey (which has been our SAVIOUR. Highly recommended).

For all of these options we asked staff for a Yes or No for whether they’d be interested in attending a CPD workshop on any of the following areas. In the free version of Survey Monkey you are only allowed ten questions so we sorted all sessions into categories some of which had sub-categories so we could fit in our 19 workshop ideas :

1. Improved impact in the classroom.

Dealing with low level disruption
Using LSAs more effectively
Improved marking & feedback
Literacy in your lessons
Numeracy in your lessons
Effective differentiation strategies
Teaching revision and study skills at Key Stage 3

2. So you want to be a middle leader? (But aren’t yet on the MLDP)

3. Dealing with difficult situations.
Drugs awareness (run by the police)
Difficult parents
Difficult students (pastoral)

4. Improving teaching & learning through peer observations.

5. Effective use of ICT
Excel spreadsheets for data tracking – Basic
Excel spreadsheets for data tracking – Enhanced
Using iPads in the classroom

6. Making the most of Guidance Time.
(our daily extended tutor time within our vertical House system)

7. Homework: the issues and the solutions.

8. Running successful trips from school (day trips, residentials, home and abroad).

9. Well-being: A session that promotes your health, happiness & sanity!

We also asked colleagues to use the comments box at the bottom of the survey to add any additional ideas for workshops that had not been already offered.

An all staff email (including LSAs and support staff like the cover supervisors, behaviour and careers co-ordinators) was sent out with the Survey Monkey link and a deadline to complete the survey by.

We decided not to chase anyone – at this stage the responses were anonymous anyway, as we just wanted to gauge numbers and interest for different areas.

We were banking on about 120 people attending on the day: teaching and non-teaching staff, plus invited guests from partner schools we had been working with in our outreach work. On the first day we had 36 responses alone and over the next week we gathered 66 replies. This gave us enough feedback to determine the nature of the workshops and then we could decide on sizes of groups (no more than 25) and confirm with presenters that we’d love it if they would support us on the day by running a workshop.

Step 2 – Knowing Me Knowing You

Our knowledge of the expertise existing within our staff was absolutely crucial. Some sessions leapt out as ‘belonging’ to certain staff due to their previous work/experience or current areas of interest or expertise. And then the four of us pooled knowledge of certain skills that individual teachers had in order to create a good mix of those who were more experienced in delivering CPD with complete novices: we knew colleagues would support one another in the preparation of sessions.

This was our final list of workshops:

Making the most of Guidance Time
Using iPads in the classroom (x 2 sessions)
Difficult parents (x 2)
Improved marking and feedback
Literacy in your lessons
Using LSAs more effectively (x 2)
Drugs awareness
Improving teaching and learning through peer observations (x 2)
Dealing with low level disruption
Difficult students (pastoral) (x 2)
Teaching revision and study skills at Key Stage 3
Well-being: Mindfulness and "Calm session" (3 of the Art Dept led a decorative glass-making session)*
Well-being: Mindfulness and "Active Session" (A PE teacher supervised Staff Dodgeball in the Gym)*

*both sessions were started by Head of Drama, Simon, who’s shown an interest in the theory and practice associated with mindfulness recently. He led everyone in a 10 minute introduction in how mindfulness can relieve stress and actively support our mental health.

Each workshop was 50 mins long. We decided that after lunch, we’d utilise the time that we could have easily slotted another session in by asking staff to meet back into departments, discussing what they’d learned and looking at what they might build into their own and their department’s practice as soon as they could. Tess very often rightly asserts that she wants CPD that has a take-away aspect that she can use in her classroom tomorrow; I think most staff would agree with this, as well as the tools to build strategies with medium and long-term impact too.

Last session of the day would be a Teachmeet to bring everyone back together for a sharing opportunity: for most of the staff, this would be their first experience of a Teachmeet; even though it was a fairly short one, it gave staff the chance to listen to what others had gained from the day and get a sense of that powerful collegiate energy that comes from a peer-led Teachmeet.

We then emailed all staff with another Survey Monkey, this time one that allowed staff to give their names, choose 1st choice workshops and then tick a list of remaining workshops they wouldn't mind being given if they couldn't get 1st choice. We made sure staff knew it was strictly FIRST COME FIRST SERVED with a cut off of 2 weeks.

Step 3 – Take a Chance On Me

A tricky area for anyone organising CPD, whether you are using outside services or those from within your school is quality control. How could we ensure that the sessions would be high quality when presenters were out of their comfort zones, possibly presenting to peers for the first time, and perhaps having a limited experience of good CPD.

The CPD day itself was centred on the theme of ‘High Expectations’, one of our key messages for the coming year and a central part of the school development plan. This gave us some ideas about how to ensure a standardised approach whilst still allowing presenters the flexibility and creativity to deliver an exciting and stimulating session. We asked for the following common elements:

1.       The session should feed into the umbrella theme of High Expectations
2.       Colleagues attending each session needed to know that they would learn more about approaches firmly embedded in educational research with proof of high impact on students’ learning. We provided further reading for all presenters based on research detailed by Prof John Hattie, the Sutton Trust and Dylan Wiliam amongst others. Strategies were linked to effect sizes for each workshop theme.
3.       Wherever possible, links to improving attainment for Pupil Premium students should be mentioned in each session; again, a key theme in our whole-school approach over the coming year, as previously.

We offered as much or as little support as presenters wanted. But one thing that I thought might help was to ask nervous presenters to create their session not as a CPD delivery but just as a really great lesson, something we knew they would be able to do with bells, whistles and knobs on. I think this approach worked: the more nervous colleagues could see now how they might structure their sessions; what resources they might use and how they might think about making their sessions have long-term impact.

Paul and I held an after-school meeting a couple of weeks before the day, to reiterate the make-up of the day, the aims and some of the house-keeping like room allocations. Some presenters were delivering solo, some had decided to work in pairs, many of which were cross-curricular, giving colleagues their first opportunities to work together. After the admin, we asked presenters to join up with others and share what they had planned for the sessions. This worked brilliantly, and it really helped colleagues with the ‘planning aloud’ benefits of explaining why they’d made certain decisions and even discussing where there might be gaps in the planning so far. There was a really positive buzz about this meeting and we knew we were onto something very special.

Step 4 – The Day Before You Came (alternatively, SOS)

Ok, not exactly the actual day before, but on the run up to The Day, we worked like eedjits trying to make sure we’d dotted every i, crossed every t and umlauted every u. Rather them than me, but Tess and Therese spent a number of happy hours filling all of the workshops with people’s first choices, as far as could be managed, second choices where sessions were over-subscribed and no choice for those who’d missed the deadline. I assume they were happy, at any rate: every time I went near the office and said ‘You two OK?’, they made high pitched noises that I think were positive replies; I couldn’t hear properly as they seemed to have their teeth clenched tightly. Jolly good.

The final programme looked like this:


The end of Wednesday found us in the Science Block Hall shifting tables with the very patient care-taking team; building a mini-stage and ‘one-twoing’ for all our worth with the p.a. system. Signing–in sheets were sellotaped to tables, individual stationery and folder packs for each member of staff (a lovely finishing touch sorted by Paul and our fab Repro team) stacked onto desks; coffee and tea laid out.

We felt like the (dysfunctional) family the day before our offspring’s wedding but luckily we no longer had any nerves, as they had been completed shredded by this point.

Final - and some would say most important - decision of the whole process was to decide what we were going to wear. I am disappointed to report that not everyone on our team felt as driven as Tess and me to discuss this at length, but life is full of these little disappointments, and we accepted it.

(Tess went for a navy polkadot dress and I plumped for a shiny silver T-shirt and jeans. “Are you going to a disco?” asked my husband when I got ready the next day. At this moment, I KNEW I’d made the right decision.)

Step 4 – Super Trouper



As soon as we arrived, we knew it was going to be an epic day. Spotting my outfit as I stood with my 1 female and 2 male team colleagues, the Head began to refer to us as Abba. It stuck.

I can’t lie and say there were no hitches on the day, but they really were only minor ones in the great scheme of things. I managed to attend one other session as well as the two I was running and I loved the mix of people in the room; the pace and excitement generated by regular discussions; the sense that we were being truly collaborative, creative and energized above all, at a time of year when everyone is on their knees with exhaustion. It reinforces my belief (long-held by fellow Pedagooers) that this kind of peer-led, bottom-up CPD is truly empowering and very exciting.

The day went by in a high-octane blur and before we knew it, we were back in the Hall for the Teachmeet. We’d asked departments to sit together at large tables which we’d covered in lining paper, marker pens and chocolate bars (thanks to Tess’s husband, John, who works for a well-known chocolate factory, although not as an Oompa Loompa, sadly). Departments were encouraged to write down shared ideas onto the lining paper and then take it back to pin in their offices to refer to when making further plans.

We’d provided each session with a feedback sheet which we asked to be filled in at the end of each session (below).

These for the majority of workshops:



And these for the mindfulness/well-being sessions:



We collected these in and then, after the Teachmeet, asked staff to fill in a post-it stating WWW and EBI, to be stuck to a big whiteboard we’d set up.

Perhaps the first indication of the success of the day was at the end. The usual end-of-CPD-day response is akin to a flock of velociraptors chasing a truckload of cattle out of the school doors, yet even after we’d thank everyone and officially wrapped up, a significant number of staff stayed back to chat.

The previously-nervous presenters were delighted at how their sessions had been received. We now need to harness this energy and build on the confidence that has been established when staff are given the chance to work outside of their comfort zones and embrace the challenge of collaborating much more with their peers.

We could see the Head was happy by the end of the day (and not just with my sparkly silver top) but he was positively effusive about what he’d witnessed as he popped in and out of sessions and chatted to staff from our own school and the 12 colleagues from partner schools (“Are there any jobs going here?” was one request he’d had.)

The amazing Therese sorted through the post-its the next day and typed up the responses. Here is a representative selection (with numbers in brackets if replicated):

What Went Well:
·         Excellent ideas (especially Guidance Time) which I really will try
·         Great discussion and ideas on homework and behaviour
·         Presentations by different staff it was refreshing to see different people ( x 8)
·         Well organised, structured  and very professional (5)
·         Meeting and chatting to staff from other departments and schools (x 8)
·         Our staff are amazing! Thank you everyone who delivered a session!
·         Making cool glassware in the “calm” session
·         Being able to choose your own activities from a range on offer (x 7)
·         Chance to share good practice with colleagues at school not generic training (x 6)
·         Training from colleagues who know our particular staff and students (x 2)
·         One of the best training days I’ve ever been on (x 2)
·         Calm / creative sessions should be a regular part of TED/CPD

Even Better If:
·         Whole day of workshops (x 3)
·         More time for each session to allow discussion time at the end (x 19)
·         More such sessions on a regular basis
·         Longer time for practical
·         Do it again! September  TED, to enable us to get on sessions missed
·         Less options could lead to a more focused discussion
·         More selection for lunch, carrots not peas

We’ll definitely re-group very soon and consider where we’re going next (will there be another chance to run a CPD day next year? What can we do to improve it?) but there is no doubt it was a very special day. Many staff took the time to personally approach each or all of us to say how much they’d enjoyed the day and – crucially – they felt it had been relevant and energizing using the set-up that we’d borrowed from Pedagoo.

We also received a number of emails that evening. My favourites:

“…it was great to see how much good practice is happening in school and time was given to actually sharing for a full day instead of just having it thrown at you in a 10 min meeting.”


“Thanks for the encouragement and suggestions about doing a session on the TED… I have had some really very positive responses from some unlikely sources who have sworn that they will dismember me if I reveal that it had an impact on them. 
It is really odd that we feel embarrassed to admit that we need to just get some relief at times. I know I felt awkward admitting to colleagues I sometimes sit down quietly for ten minutes?? Also the respondents said they felt a bit vulnerable about admitting it worked and that they would continue to mock me in public. 
Blokes!!
Thanks again.
Simon”

And lastly, from our Head:

“Dear Abba,

My vision – that oft used ill thought out phrase - was to run a school where colleagues wanted to attend, were happy to be there, were full of ideas, felt challenged to develop without the fear of constant judgment, where respect and values were not words that were left in the dictionary and, crucially, where leadership occurred at every level, not apportioned as the job of the senior leadership team.

The last two days have given me great hope that we are getting there and that a great school is attainable.

Well done

Neil”

Happy doesn’t even cover it…


I really hope other schools are inspired to follow suit with us and other schools that are opting for this type of CPD. Do get in touch if you have any questions about putting this type of CPD on in your school.


Saturday, 5 April 2014

Dynamite Paragraphs - How to teach your students to analyse brilliantly

This method is suitable for analysing both language and literature.

This strategy comes from material that was shared by an AQA adviser for English at a recent course attended by my super colleague Karen Cunningham @kcquietcorner.

The adviser gave a bank of words that can be used to construct deeper, more probing analysis of language and encourage more detailed responses, especially under the time constraints of exams. However, as I have found this week, this method works equally well with students in lower years.

So I took the word banks and created two posters that I stuck up in my room. 


 



After seeing students keen to take photos of the posters I reckoned it would also be useful to create printable versions, which I now have.


 


The first poster demonstrates how paragraphs might be started, encouraging a wider range in vocabulary right from the off. I’ll use the first class I tried this with as my initial example and I’ll replicate actual responses from the students. It was my Year 11 set 4 (out of 5 sets) and we had been studying the poem “Bayonet Charge” by Ted Hughes. I was trying to teach them the old ‘write a lot about a little’ strategy and students had picked out 3 quotations that they thought would be worth further exploration (and hopefully would then replicate in the exam).

Here’s the poem in its entirety: a brutal, powerful and heartbreaking snapshot into what must surely be the final moments of a WWI soldier as he goes over the top.

Bayonet Charge

Suddenly he awoke and was running - raw
In raw-seamed hot khaki, his sweat heavy,
Stumbling across a field of clods towards a green hedge
That dazzled with rifle fire, hearing
Bullets smacking the belly out of the air -
He lugged a rifle numb as a smashed arm;
The patriotic tear that had brimmed in his eye
Sweating like molten iron from the centre of his chest, -

In bewilderment then he almost stopped -
In what cold clockwork of the stars and the nations
Was he the hand pointing that second? He was running
Like a man who has jumped up in the dark and runs
Listening between his footfalls for the reason
Of his still running, and his foot hung like
Statuary in mid-stride. Then the shot-slashed furrows

Threw up a yellow hare that rolled like a flame
And crawled in a threshing circle, its mouth wide
Open silent, its eyes standing out.
He plunged past with his bayonet toward the green hedge,
King, honour, human dignity, etcetera
Dropped like luxuries in a yelling alarm
To get out of that blue crackling air
His terror’s touchy dynamite.

TED HUGHES

I modeled how to create a Dynamite Paragraph with the help of the students, as a whole class activity; the students were then expected to do two more on their own. To start off, one of the students chose the line from the second stanza:
In what cold clockwork of the stars and the nations
Was he the hand pointing that second?”

It’s a complex and challenging extract: the second stanza sees almost a slowing or a freeze-frame of the soldier charging as his final thoughts occur and he begins to question his existence.

We first looked at what we considered to be the first two words worthy of exploration: “cold clockwork”. We discussed each word in turn. What did the word ‘cold’ connote? The students came up with suggestions such as ‘heartless’ and ‘unemotional’.

Then we moved onto ‘clockwork’ which seemed harder for the students, but in its purest form they agreed related to time. Therefore, the two words together gave a sense of time being uncaring.

We then tried the same method to look at the words ‘the stars and the nations’. Through discussion and questioning, the students deduced that this might relate to the universe (stars) and conflict between countries (the nations), or war.

Now we needed to write the paragraph so we referred to the first poster to get a starter sentence. Students will need practice in order to embed this type of sentence starter but it doesn’t take very long to get the hang of it.




In the second stanza, Ted Hughes creates the impression of the soldier questioning why he is there: “In what cold clockwork of the stars and the nations/ Was he the hand pointing that second?”



We now moved to the second poster to construct our first PEA bit of the paragraph and we chose: “this suggests” from the first column and came up with our first layer of meaning.
 

In the second stanza, Ted Hughes creates the impression of the soldier questioning why he is there: “In what cold clockwork of the stars and the nations/ Was he the hand pointing that second?” The words ‘cold clockwork’ suggest that time will move on whatever happens to this soldier; that it is unfeeling and doesn’t care.






Many students that struggle to move from D-grade-type responses would probably end their analyses here. But, instead, you return to the second poster and choose a word or phrase from the second column in order to take the analysis a step further, e.g. 'This could also imply that...' or 'In addition to this...' and then move onto another point about the same same quotation. This is what we came up with at this stage:

Further to this, the mention of ‘the stars’ seems to suggest the universe, backing up the idea that time is moving on, whatever happens on Earth at that moment. The soldier is realising that his life is very small in comparison with the universe. The mention of ‘the nations’ suggests the countries on Earth which are at war with one another.


Pretty good so far! But we’re not done, because we now need to add the final layer, the piece de resistance: an interpretation of the entire idea evoked by the quotation. This is where A* students come into their own and the idea of interpretation might seem out of reach for many lower ability students. However, when given a structure to work from I’ve found some students are more than capable of coming up with some astonishing ideas: a great example of setting the bar as high as possible and seeing what happens.

So we go back to the second poster and now choose a third layer of analysis using the third column, one that allows some left-field thinking and encourages imaginative thinking. “Maybe”, “This could possibly mean”, “Perhaps”. 

It could be that because the starters are suggestive rather than concrete, the students feel confident in trying some original ideas out. Higher ability students are much more confident about suggesting outlandish ideas; lower ability students much less so: they fear failure and are embarrassed about getting things ‘wrong’.

So we had a go at a third layer in our model paragraphs, each student having an individual go and then we shared and discussed some of the outcomes. They were AMAZING. Sheri’s in particular blew our minds so we chose his answer for our model:

In the second stanza, Ted Hughes creates the impression of the soldier questioning why he is there: “In what cold clockwork of the stars and the nations/ Was he the hand pointing that second?” The words ‘cold clockwork’ suggest that time will move on whatever happens to this soldier; that it is unfeeling and doesn’t care.
Further to this, the mention of ‘the stars’ seems to suggest the universe, backing up the idea that time is moving on, whatever happens on Earth at that moment. The soldier is realising that his life is very small in comparison with the universe. The mention of ‘the nations’ suggests the countries on Earth which are at war with one another.
Hughes may possibly be suggesting that the soldier is actually having an existential crisis in this split-second, which is ironic as he now almost certainly is facing death. Hughes could be emphasising here how pointless our lives really are as humans when we are so tiny in the universe and the history of time. The fact that war has made life even shorter is the cause of anger for Hughes, I think.

As our fab LSA Andy commented as we were packing up, “If someone had ever told me I’d even hear the word existential in this class, let along used in such a powerful way, I’d never have believed them!” I agreed. Sheri obviously has a great vocabulary, but he’s shy and often reluctant to commit pen to paper. This simple structure actually gave students the tools with which to construct sound analytical paragraphs but, added to that, an opportunity to go a stage further and attempt to be creative. Other students’ work, although perhaps not in quite the same league as Sheri, surpassed anything else they’d done in terms of analysis of language all year.

I’ve tried it with all of my classes now, including a Y8 cover class I’d never taught before in their study of The Lady of Shalott. They lapped it up. Here are some example of the Dynamite Paragraphs written by the year 8s in response the question: “How does Tennyson create the sense that Camelot is a magical place in this part of the poem?”

Tennyson describes the appearance of Camelot from the outside: “Four grey walls, and four grey towers/ Overlook a space of flowers” This actually suggests that Camelot is not magical because the word ‘grey’ is repeated and we usually associate grey with something dull and quite boring. However, the ‘space of flowers’ suggests beauty and colour as a contrast, which might smell lovely in the air. In addition to this idea, Tennyson could even be suggesting that, from the outside, Camelot might look ordinary, but if you are on the inside looking out, it looks beautiful all around. Perhaps he is saying that you only really feel the magic of Camelot when you are in there as it is so special and surrounded by beauty.

And another one:

Tennyson starts with the description: “On either side the river lie/ Long fields of barley and rye”. This highlights what surrounds Camelot and show how it stands out from the landscape of ordinary crops. Although they do not seem magical described like this, if you imagine it, it could imply that the crops’ colours of yellow and gold are beautiful. Tennyson could even be showing the difference between the ordinary farmers and worker and the people that live in Camelot. The farmers see the fields as part of their normal day of work but the people living in Camelot would look out of their windows onto the gold of the fields and the silver of the river, making it seem precious and magical.

The Dynamite Paragraphs are such a simple concept but they highlight an area of analysis that seems such a leap for many students to make and they’ve worked really well so far, including when practicing Paper 1 language questions that ask how writers create effects.

I must give full credit to the lovely @kathdarliston85 who came up with the name Dynamite Paragraphs when I shared this with her and the equally lovely @FranNantongwe when they visited the other day. Thank you both for your insights and views as we discussed this strategy. 

UPDATE:
Just look what @JamieClark85 did with the idea of Dynamite Paragraphs!



Just wow. I LOVE Twitter!

Wednesday, 2 April 2014

When Molly wrote to Michael...

My daughter is in Year 7. She was speaking to her Geography teacher last month about how much she disliked some of the education policies she was hearing about (mostly via me although, to be fair to her, she did some reading around too). Her teacher encouraged her to write to Michael Gove. So she did.

And today he replied. This is the letter he sent, which replies to each point she made in turn. I didn't see the full letter before she sent it but you'll see she had a varied palette of concerns, going by his detailed reply. It has amused me no end that she thought to express her concerns not only about the status of Teaching Assistants and the length of the school day, but also the removal of Baroness Morgan as Chair of Ofsted!

Anyway, here is Michael Gove's reply in full:




What do you think? 

She's pretty pleased to have received a reply, although she said she thinks he's deferred on a lot of the points. My husband also pointed out that our daughter is, indeed, lucky that she doesn't have parents that work long hours, what with us being a nurse and a teacher... But, hey. 

Tuesday, 25 March 2014

Introducing... PO-LEGO!

So here is a way that I've been teaching a poem's structure for the past few years that a colleague dubbed Po-Lego (the 'g' is soft to give it a slightly exotic and continental appeal, belying its humble and completely home-made status). It's worked equally well for Year 7 right up to Year 11, every time I've used it and students are able to write about structure very effectively once they've grasped the idea that the way the poem is presented on the page often reflects its ideas and themes. 

I decided to make a Po-Lego display today to make use of a box I bought from Accessorize the other week when they sold off their ex-display stuff for charity (look out for that by the way, I got a shed-load of amazing stuff for just £12. They do it at the end of each season apparently).

These photos should tell the tale clearly enough:










Ta-Dah!

Saturday, 22 March 2014

Getting started with Lesson Study - some practical tips

What is Lesson Study?
Traditionally, lesson study is a method used for improvements in teaching and learning, originating in Japan but widely used in the US and the Far East over the past 15 years, with widespread success.

Working in groups, teachers plan approaches to learning, usually a tricky concept in a subject area, and together they design what they call a ‘research lesson’. 
One of the group then teaches the lesson and the others observe the students and the learning. 
The focus is NOT on the teacher’s performance. 
The learning is scrutinised and the teachers reflect on the lesson methodology. 
The process is ongoing; the aim is that pedagogy can be honed and improved to maximise the impact of teaching.

Conventional Japanese lesson study looks a bit like this:



You might surmise from this that the normal climate of the classroom might be a tad disrupted by swarms of other teachers with their clipboards in the room while you attempt to teach. It works very well in Japan and in the other countries and cultures but, as I mentioned in a previous post, these education systems build in CPD time into every teacher’s timetable as an integral part of their working week. This allows the time to collaborate, observe, reflect and discuss. We don’t, typically, have this luxury in the UK. However, the benefits of lesson study are so great, that it is worthwhile adapting its use.

A UK model of lesson study might typically look like this:

·   Teachers plan together, with (usually 3) key learners in mind.
·   The lesson is taught with other teacher or teachers watching the lesson.
·   The students’ learning is the focus, not the teacher performance.
·   Students are often involved in the feedback process (carefully-managed).
·   Feedback and findings inform future planning.
·   The process is ongoing and reciprocal.

When trying to implement a cycle of lesson study, there are a number of factors to give some careful thought to first. We’ve been using lesson study in a number of ways over the past few years now and these points are obviously just from our own point of view and experience, so this is not a Bible of Lesson Study by any means. Hopefully you’ll find our past and current findings useful if you set off on your own path though.

What are you using lesson study for to begin with?

There are probably three main uses for lesson study that you might want to consider, none of which are entirely separate and, indeed, can compliment one another but which could blur the focus if not discussed beforehand.
·   Is it to improve pedagogy through examination of improved technique, centering around subject knowledge in particular subject areas? (This is what lesson study first set out to do.)
·   Is it to approach collaborative and coaching-led improvement in teaching and learning more generically and across subject areas?
·   Is it to identify key students’ needs and track their responses to differences in teaching?


Who is going to take part in the first round?

I would strongly recommend that you start with a group of willing volunteers; people that really want to work it through with a bit of trial and error and who aren’t going to see it as an onerous task on top of an already creaking load. If you have a teaching and learning group or similar, I’d say this is ideal.

And on that subject, here are some of the more common problems that we’ve had with lesson study over the past few years. These are based on the model we decided to focus on: looking at the learning of key students in order to tweak teaching.

·   Lesson study is a time-sponge
·   The Japanese model is fairly unmanageable
·   It requires commitment to the whole process – this can be an issue if the programme is ‘imposed’
·   It doesn’t work as well when the three-part model is compromised (when the planning or feedback parts are not present)

None of these problems are insurmountable, though, and the beauty of lesson study is its flexibility. What do we say to problems?


So here are some suggestions to these issues:

·   Lesson study is a time-sponge
Start small; use non-contact time to begin with. This is probably a tad contentious but the fact is that, unless your SLT is convinced of lesson study’s merits from the off, you are unlikely to be granted any time. Use the time you do have wisely, track the success and impact of findings and present them to SLT at the end of your pilot in order to try to persuade them to allow more time in the next round of lesson study. Hard data might be what SLT wants and the aim is of course that, over time, this can be provided. In the short or medium term though, use lesson studies to find strategies that seem to work with the key students and then share these findings with other teachers of these students. Canvas these teachers to see if the strategies are affecting the progress, attitude or visibility of the students. Anecdotal evidence can be very powerful.

One idea I have long had and continue to plug away at is that cover supervisers be used to cover classes at times they have formal tests and assessments, leaving class teachers free to visit other classrooms. It would be fabulous if lesson study could be used to improve teaching and learning of pupil premium students: could PP money be used to accommodate cover if impact can be measured and shown to make a difference?

·   The Japanese model is fairly unmanageable
No-one really wants hoards of teachers blocking up the aisles and standing in front of their whiteboard. We’re lucky to have an observation classroom that accommodates up to 8 teachers comfortably who can watch a lesson and discuss it as part of a lesson study. However, working in pairs and threes, lesson study can be hosted in any classroom without any disruption to the dynamic of the lesson.

As stated above, start with volunteers and build up momentum. The best T&L groups feed in to school development through piloting innovative practice; could your lesson study pilot be shared across the school after one or two rounds, again, with evidence of its success in the for of improved T&L and students’ attainment.

·   It doesn’t work as well when the three-part model is compromised (when the planning or feedback parts are not present)
The three stages: planning, lesson study and feedback/reflection are essential and non-negotiable if it is to work. The planning stage runs the risk of being the perceived ‘disposable’ part. It’s true, however, that it could be missed out of the first round. The lesson study can take place once focus students have been identified and in this way it acts as a ‘diagnosis’ as it observes the students in their usual habitat. However, the feedback afterwards should the inform the planning of the next lessons with these students. 

If time does not allow the lesson study observers to work with the teacher to plan, then the least that should happen is for the observer(s) to see the lesson plan (even via email) before the next observed lesson. It’s often a very useful exercise to plan a lesson 1) with your focus students and their needs in mind 2) with annotations for your observer(s) that explain your decisions about the lesson. Think about Zoe Elder’s (@fullonlearning) excellent advice about learning objectives: ‘so that…’; think about why you are including certain tasks or questions. It’s a reflective exercise.

Most models of lesson study include student interviews. The official advice is to conduct interviews with focus students after the lesson but, if time does not allow, I would take time in the lesson to chat quietly to students and ascertain their perceptions about the learning. Whatever you think about student voice, this part of lesson study has often resulted in some very interesting evidence. Be careful to make it clear to students this is about their learning, not their teacher and use skilful questioning to draw out reflections rather then offer blunt opinions.


Lastly, here are three brief examples of different lesson studies we’ve tried out in the time we’ve been using it:

Case Study 1

An English teacher and geography teacher worked together to improve approaches to differentiation in mixed ability geography lessons. They planned together, with the English teacher asking questions about the planning as the geog teacher ‘planned aloud’, talking through his planning and articulating reasons for decisions. This was useful as it opened up questions about whether certain tasks or methods are included out of habit or out of consideration of the students’ needs.
3 focus students: lower ability (girl), middle ability (boy) and higher ability (girl).

The post-lesson interview with the students revealed that the lower ability student had misunderstood much of the initial instructions and felt lost in the task but was worried she was being a nuisance asking for too much help.
The middle ability student was the happiest and felt that the lesson was pitched perfectly; he and his teacher were pleased with the outcomes he’d achieved.
The higher ability student felt slightly frustrated that the lesson had been stopped so many times by the teacher wanting to add extra explanations when he saw some students struggling. She'd wanted to be left in peace to complete some extended work.

In feedback, the teacher decided after discussion that he could, in the future, offer 3 levels of support when he set up an active task like this again:
Minimal – go off, work independently and see you later
Intermediate – go off to work, but use support materials when needed and ask for help if/when problems occurred
Maximum – stay with the teacher to begin with, for further explanations and support, then try to work more independently when you feel more confident.


Case Study 2

A subject leader taught a lesson in our observation room with the rest of the department watching. The focus here was actually to improve on the quality of feedback teachers could give one another, as the department was about to embark on some peer walk-throughs to gauge quality of engagement in lessons. The lesson was ‘hosted’ from behind the glass by one of the lead practitioners who led the teachers through questions that focused on key students’ learning and participation in the lesson so they could see the lesson with a fresh pair of eyes, from a student perspective. The session’s impact was successful in a number of ways, not least in ‘bonding’ the department in some sharing of good practice and agreed outcomes and it also led to walk-throughs that had student learning as the focus, rather than teacher ‘performance’ which would not have been particularly helpful in this instance.

Case Study 3

As well as using lesson studies to spot RHINOs, as outlined in previous blogposts, I recently use it to compare outcomes in writing with some of my lower ability year 10 EAL students when I observed them practising their extended writing in a Science lesson. I was able to feedback to their science teacher using not only what I’d seen them do in his lesson but using my previous knowledge of the boys and what they have been achieving in English of late. We’ve both learned a lot from this experience and the next stage will be for my colleague to come to me in an English lesson and observe those 3 boys to see what common strategies we can develop in helping them with their written work.


I'm convinced that lesson study is a powerful strategy for improvements in teaching and learning; its potential should not be under-estimated.